Map of the Flensburg area and Jägerslust, 1877.

Map of the Flensburg area and Jägerslust, 1877.

Map of Prussia, 1877

Background

With the increased marginalization of Jewish life in Germany under the Nazi regime, emigration soon became a priority for Jews who, unable to earn a living or study, could no longer picture a future for themselves in Germany. The need to escape racial discrimination and violence, coupled with a growing awareness of their Jewish identity and a lack of other possible destinations, resulted in a sudden increase in applications for Palestine among a community that had until then been largely assimilated and mostly unresponsive to Zionist ideas.

In order to be eligible for an emigration visa to British Mandatory Palestine, candidates had to be able to demonstrate skills in agriculture or crafts - skills that most hopefuls coming from urban communities did not possess. For the majority of people who wished to emigrate, so-called "retraining" was needed in order to be able to aply to such visa.

Hachshara, Hebrew for "preparation", was the term used for training programs and agricultural centers in Europe and elsewhere. At these centers Zionist youth would learn technical skills necessary for their emigration to Israel and subsequent life in kibbutzim. By 1937, the "Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden" (The "Reich Representation of German Jews") counted a total of thirty Hachshara centers for agriculture and horticulture, organized as communal living and working kibbutzim.

Hechalutz (Hebrew: החלוץ‬, lit. "The Pioneer") was a Jewish youth movement that trained young people for agricultural settlement in the Land of Israel. Initially, the German Hechalutz National Association had found little resonance among the assimilated Jews when it had first been established. It was not until 1933, when the Jews started to experience their exclusion from German society, that the German Hechalutz registered an enormous increase in membership. In October 1932 there were just 589 young Jews belonging to the Hechalutz organization. By the end of 1933, that number had grown abruptly due to the increasing persecution to approximately 13,000 chalutzim across 75 local groups and various training places. At the end of 1936, there were about 8,000 members, with 96 local groups and about 60 training centers in Germany.

The people who joined the German Hechalutz organization were "generally young Jews, barely religious, far removed from Judaism, assimilated to their German environment, from a petty-bourgeois mentality and way of life. Mostly active in business, on social ascent, they were unexpectedly pulled out of their career and life path. Among them were students and young academics whose careers in higher education, medical practice, law offices, and government offices suddenly ended. [...] This young generation came from the Jewish middle class, which had been crushed since the boycott day on April 1, 1933, did not join the Hechalutz movement out of conviction. They came out of an emergency [...] They were ready to learn about the Zionist ideal, to try the way of the 'working Palestinian', to try out the unknown and to give anything a chance that seemed to promise a livelihood and stability."

One such Hachshara center was the Jägerslust estate on the outskirts of Flensburg, near the Danish border. A small facility which saw about one hundred trainees between 1934 and 1938, it was there that my mother received her training for a few short months in the summer of 1938. Thanks to this training, she would later be invited to board an Alyah Bet ("Illegal Immigration") ship to Palestine, which saved her life. Below is a brief history of the Hachshara, along with information on some of the people who received their training there.

I am indebted to Bernd Philipsen, whose research on Jägerslust provided the core of the information on this page.

The Story of Jägerslust

By Bernd Philipsen, author of "Jägerslust" : Gutshof, Kibbuz, Flüchtlingslager, Militär-Areal (Gesellschaft für Flensburger Stadtgeschichte, 2008.)

In 1906, the Wolff family, a Jewish manufacturer from Berlin, acquired the Jägerslust estate on the western outskirts of Flensburg, modernized the manor house, enlarged the stables and moved to Flensburg. The property was managed with the help of farm workers, while the father of the family, Georg Wolff, primarily pursued his passion: hunting. After his death in 1917, his widow Katharina, known as Käte, and his son Alexander Wolff continued the farm, while their daughters Susanne and Lilly trained to become teachers.

The family had already become somewhat alienated from Judaism when, after the National Socialists seized power in 1933, they experienced the effects of Nazi policies and were suddenly excluded from society and stigmatized as Jews. This development led to a return to their Judaism and the decision to make their property available to the Zionist-socialist youth organization Hechalutz as a training facility for emigration.

It can be assumed that Alexander Wolff discussed the construction and working conditions of a Hachshara farm on his estate at the Hechalutz headquarters in Meinekestraße in Berlin. Eventually, the Hamburg Hechalutz office in Beneckestraße was responsible for supporting the venture. In 1936, its director, Schimon Reich, published a report on the activities in the Hamburger Gemeindeblatt and mentioned Jägerslust, where, according to him, twelve internship or reallocation positions had begun in 1934. In view of the growing demand, he announced that capacity would be doubled: "Kibbutz Flensburg is about to expand at the moment. With the help of the Central Office in Berlin, we managed to obtain the funds for the conversion and expansion of the premises, so we have the opportunity to increase the number of chawerim to 25 in the near future."

The young men and women who completed their Hachshara at the Jägerslust estate came from all parts of Germany, namely from large cities such as Berlin, Breslau, Mannheim, Cologne, Bonn, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Mainz, Chemnitz and Leipzig. They were more used to urban life than an agricultural milieu in the Schleswig-Holstein province. Their ages ranged from 18 to 35 years.

When the first twelve Chaluzim and Chaluzot came to the estate in the fall of 1934, they were housed on the upper floor of the manor house. To expand it, a so-called workers' house was built about 200 meters away in 1936. From now on, the Palestine pioneers, as the interns were also called, were housed separately according to gender: the women in the manor house and the men in the simple new building, where the kibbutz-like community life then took place.

The young people who lived and worked on the estate did not form a homogeneous group. Many of them changed their hachshara place after a few months in order to continue their one and a half to two year retraining or internship at another place. "There was constant coming and going," recalled Alexander Muskinsky, who spent 16 months of his Hachshara time in Flensburg and then worked in Denmark as "Madrich" [guide] in the Youth Aliyah.

The proximity to the Danish border, which was relatively easy to cross in the first few years after 1933, also spoke in favor of Jägerslust. The so-called Groschenpässe (border passes with a fee of one groschen, that is, ten pfennigs) provided good opportunities for escape and contacts to Denmark. No passport photo was required for such an identity document, which was actually intended for German-Danish excursions. The certificates were repeatedly used to undertake escapes across the border. With the introduction of the identification card on October 1, 1938, the issuance of the so-called "penny passes" was discontinued.

Finding ways into a new life was also made easier by an exchange program that had been agreed between the Landøkonomisk Rejsebureau of the Royal Danish Agricultural Society in Copenhagen and the Hechalutz headquarters in Berlin and was initially continued after the Nazi takeover. This German-Danish exchange program for agricultural apprentices gained in importance in view of the increasing pressure on the Jewish population and was promoted by both the German and the Danish Hechalutz. The Lehrgut Jägerslust also took part in this program by allowing agricultural trainees from Flensburg to switch to Danish farms relatively easily in order to continue their Hachshara there.

At the time, Gut Jägerslust was the second largest farm in Flensburg with a total of 77 hectares. It was difficult to wrest harvests from the barren, sandy Geest soil. The men, who were taught methods of soil improvement including the use of fertilizers and marl by the owner of the estate Alexander Wolff, experienced this. Machines were not used and the physically demanding work was unfamiliar and challenging for the interns. Käte Wolff looked after the women and introduced them to housekeeping. There were also practical tasks in the estate garden which was attached to the manor house. Friendships were formed and marriages formed among the Hachshara participants, who organized their own kibbutz life.

The Gestapo always kept an eye on what was happening on the Hachshara farms, including in Flensburg, where the local Gestapo chief Hans Hermannsen initially left the Jägerslust landlord and the interns alone. "He let my 'agriculture school' get away with it," said the former landlord Alexander Wolff in an interview in 1966.

The period of toleration ended in Flensburg with the November Pogrom of 1938 (Kristallnacht), when the courtyard and the kibbutz were attacked by Nazi henchmen on the night of November 10th. The raid was led by the Flensburg Police President and SS Standartenfuhrer Hinrich Möller. This action, in which not only the police, but also Gestapo, SS and SA forces took part, meant the abrupt end of the grace period for the Wolff family and the Hachshara.

In its annual report for 1938, the Security Service of the North-West noted that "In the fall, the Zionist retraining camp Jägerslust near Flensburg was closed due to scandalous conditions". What the SD [Sicherheitsdienst: Security Service] report described as "scandalous conditions" was in fact the result of the attack instigated by Möller: During the night raid, all Jägerslust residents - the members of the Wolff family and the agricultural and home economics students - were arrested, some of them abused and the buildings completely devastated. The perpetrators failed in their attempt to set fire to the manor house and the stables and burn them down. They went plundering through the rooms of the main house. They showed particular interest in the family silverware and Alexander Wolff's hunting rifle. On the night of the pogrom, he managed to save himself by fleeing to neighboring Denmark. He later emigrated to the USA. He was the only one in his family to survive the Holocaust.

In the period from the fall of 1934 to the violent end of the Jägerslust emigration training center, around 100 men and women took part in the Hachshara here. The names of 75 of them are known so far, 47 men and 28 women. In 23 cases, their fate has not yet been clarified. It is reported that at least 47 people survived the Nazi persecution. Most of them - namely 31 - made Aliyah and went to Palestine; five found refuge in the United States.

The Jägerslust estate, which was orphaned after the attack during the pogrom night in 1938, was "Aryanized". Buildings and land became the property of the state treasury, which used it to expand the neighboring Flensburg-Schäferhaus airfield in view of the approaching Second World War. After the end of the Second World War and the collapse of the Nazi regime, the manor buildings, supplemented by several simple barracks, functioned temporarily as emergency accommodation for refugees and expellees from the eastern German territories.

For several years, Alexander Wolff had to fight from the USA with the help of German lawyers for compensation for the former family property in Flensburg. The proceedings ended in 1952 with a settlement: financial compensation totaling 75,000 marks for buildings, lands and lost inventory.

The former estate remained in public hands - until today. The Bundeswehr used it as a military training area. The once stately mansion was blown up in 1967 as part of an exercise. The Jägerslust story finally came to an end when the Schleswig-Holstein Nature Conservation Foundation, which had taken over the site from the Bundeswehr in 1998, had the last stable building demolished in 2004. Following a suggestion from local citizens, the city of Flensburg had an information stand set up on the edge of the former estate. It provides an overview of the eventful, tragically ending history of the estate in text and images.

Nature has reconquered this piece of land. Wildflowers and grasses have settled in crevices of remaining foundations. Raspberries and nettles grow rampant in the former house garden. Today, a peaceful stillness lies over the site, as if destinies had never been decided here and life paths crossed like those of the young Palestine pioneers, for whom the Jägerslust estate was a place of hope, as was the case during the Hachshara period.

Bernd Philipsen

Gut Jägerslust, Flensburg.

Jägerslust, Flensburg.

The front of the "mansion" of Gut Jägerslust. The young women lived upstairs.

Photo: Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Jägerslust, Flensburg.

The back of the manor house of Gut Jägerslust. Erna Weinert, Richard Hausmann, Jenny Jaschkowitz. January 1937.

Photo: Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Jägerslust, Flensburg.

The workers' house, or "Kibbutz", where the young men lived.

Photo: Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Jägerslust, Flensburg.

One of the two stables of Jägerslust, which housed cows and horses, 1936.

Photo: Richard Hausmann, 1936. Courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Photos of Hachshara life in Gut Jägerslust, Flensburg.

Erwin Linz with other Flensburg trainees, ca 1935.

Erwin Linz (left row) with other Flensburg trainees, ca 1935

Photo (c) courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Erwin Linz behind the plow.

Erwin Linz behind the plow, 1935-1936

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Erwin Linz, Flensburg 1935-36.

Erwin Linz, Flensburg 1935-36

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Erwin Linz, Flensburg 1935-36

Erwin Linz, Flensburg 1935-36

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Group with Alexander Wolff, 1936-1937

Probably early March 1936. A new building (the kibbutz) had to be added to support the expansion of the Hachsharah program, as the number of trainees in Jägerslust doubled. This photo shows the structure of the roof being erected. Second to the right is Alexander Wolff. The man to the far right may be Josef Lustig. The others may be artisans from the city.

Photo: collection of the Lustig family. Notes: Bernd Philipsen.

Celebrating with a wreath the inauguration of the Jägerslust Kibbutz which was completed that month. March 22, 1936

Celebrating with a wreath the inauguration of the Jägerslust "Kibbutz" which was completed that month. March 22, 1936

Photo: collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Erna Weinert and H. Finkelstein on the roof of the Kibbutz, 1936.

Erna Weinert and H. Finkelstein on the roof of the "Kibbutz".
Jägerslust. March 22, 1936.

Photo: collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Felix Bender and Erna Weinert.

Felix Bender and Erna Weinert in front of the entrance of the "Kibbutz". March 22, 1936.

Photo: collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Hachshara group with Alex Wolff, Jägerslust, Flensburg

Hachshara group on the edge of the forest, Jägerslust, Flensburg. 1936-1937.

Alexander Wolff, Erna Weinert, Frau Käte Wolff, Chaim (Hermann) Berger, Gerhard Chaim, Adi Sporn, Josef Lustig.

Photo collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Shabbat Dinner, 16 October 1936.

Oneg Shabbat, 16 October 1936. Twenty-one interns are gathered around the table for the Shabbat dinner in Jägerslust.

Photo taken by Willi Friedmann. Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Blaumacher Association, March 1937.

"Blaumacher Association", March 1937

Photo taken by Willi Friedmann. Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Hachshara group, Jägerslust, Flensburg

Hachshara group, Jägerslust, Flensburg. Nov ? 1936

(?), Friedel (Peterseil?), Margot, Ruth Hamburger, Erna (or Eva?), Herman xxx , Paul

Photo collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Hachshara group in front of the stables.

Hachshara group in front of the stables, Gut Jägerslust, 5 November 1936.

Richard Hausmann, Ben, Lotte Kaiser, Ernst Isaksohn, Frau Käte Wolff, Ferdinand Ehrenberg, I (?) Leiter, Max Klausner

Photo Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Hachshara group in front of the stables.

Franz Kaufmann, Hermann (Chaim) Berger, Adi Sporn, 1936-1937.

The "Mikve Israel" group who wanted to go to Israel together to the agricultural school Mikve Israel.

Photo Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Group with Jehuda Marcus in front of the Kibbutz. 17 December 1936.

Group with Jehuda Marcus (center) in front of the "Kibbutz". 17 December 1936.

Photo: collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

On the way to Padborg (Denmark) with Jehuda Marcus.

On the way to Padborg (Denmark) with Jehuda Marcus (left), December 1936.

Photo by Willi Friedmann, Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Hachshara group in Jägerslust, Flensburg. 1937.

Hachshara group with Yehuda Marcus by the edge of the forest in Jägerslust, Flensburg. 1937.

Richard Hausmann: "Yehuda Marcus was a member of the "Merkas Hechalutz" in Berlin, and was called whenever insoluble problems arose, often with Alexander Wolff. I think Kurt Wohl came from Hamburg for the same purpose."

Photo by: Ferdinand Ehrenberg. Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Group with Kurt Wohl in front of the sheds. 7 January 1937.

Group with Kurt Wohl in front of the sheds. 7 January 1937.

Photo: collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Hachshara group in Kibbutz Jägerslust, FLensburg, 1937.

Kibbutz Jägerslust, Flensburg. January 16, 1937

From right to left: Lotte Kaiser, Bernhard (Männe) Horn, Ruth Hamburger, Richard Hausmann, Erna Weinert, Ben ..., Jenny Friedmann, Chaim (Hermann) Berger, Berta Tokajer, Franz Kaufmann, Ludwig Lilie. Sitting, front row: Fritz Plaut & Trude Leiter.

Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Lotte Kaiser, Alexander Wolff and Jenny Jaschkowitz.

From left to right: Lotte Kaiser, Alexander Wolff and Jenny Jaschkowitz.
January 1937.

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen

Somewhere in the field with Alex Wolff on the bike. Hachshara youth in Jägerslust, Flensburg.

In the fields with a horse-drawn carriage, accompanied by Alex Wolff on a bicycle. 1936-1937.

Photo: Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Richard and Erna Hausmann, 1937.

Richard and Erna Hausmann, 1937

Photo: Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Bernhard and Margot Horn.

Bernhard and Margot Horn

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Max Woislawski and Regina Nadler.

Regina Nadler and Max Woislawski

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Friedel Peterseil and Ferdinand Ehrenberg.

Friedel Peterseil and Ferdinand Ehrenberg

Photo: collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

March 1937.

Collecting marl used to improve the quality of the soil. March 1937.

From left to right: Josef Lustig, ?, Ludwig Lilie, ?, Richard Hausmann

Photo by: Ferdinand (Nante) Ehrenberg. Collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Group, 1936-1937

Group by the Mückenteich, a small pond near Kibbutz Jägerslust, 1936. Josef Lustig, fourth from the right, and Erna Weinert, third from the right.

Photo: collection of the Lustig family.

Group, 1936-1937

Group, 1936-1937. Josef Lustig is standing, second from the right.

Photo: collection of the Lustig family.

Hachshara youth in Jägerslust, Flensburg. 1938.

Sam Federmann with six women in Jägerslust, Flensburg, 1938.

Note: Toni Katz *might* be first left in the back row

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Sam Federmann on top of the human pyramid. Jägerslust, Flensburg. 1938.

Sam Federmann on top of the human pyramid. Jägerslust, Flensburg, 1938.

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Right: Sam Federmann.

Right: Sam Federmann

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Peeling potatoes, Jägerslust, Flensburg.

Peeling potatoes.

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Max Woislawski, Hans Rosenfeld and Siegbert Pinkus. 1938.

Max Woislawski, Hans Rosenfeld and Siegbert Pinkus working in the fields. 1938.

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

In the vegetable garden, Jägerslust, Flensburg.

In the vegetable garden, Jägerslust.

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Milking cow, Jägerslust, Flensburg.

Milking cow

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Max Woislawski. September 1938.

Max Woislawski loading manure to be used as fertilizer. September 1938.

Photo courtesy of Bernd Philipsen.

Toni Katz in Jägerslust

Toni Katz in "Kibbutz Jägerslust", Flensburg, August-November 1938.

Photo: collection Katz, courtesy of Shulik Mir.

Name Notes
Alexander Wolff
Alexander Wolff

Alexander Wolff was born March 28, 1891 in Berlin, the son of Georg Nathan Wolff and Katharine "Käthe" Wolff.

His father Georg was a succesful businessman who owned a textile factory in the Berlin area. Suffering from serious health issues, he was advised by his doctor to move to the countryside if "he wanted to live a few more years". Georg Wolff resigned from his professional functions, bought the Jägerslust estate on the outskirts of Flensburg, and moved there with his family in 1906.

Alexander Wolff had planned to become an engineer and had started studying engineering. He interrupted his studies at the beginning of the First World War to volunteer for Germany and the Kaiser. His military service as a member of the machine gun squadron lasted until October 13, 1917, when he learned of his father's sudden death.

As a result of the death of his father, Alexander changed his plans, gave up to his studies and took over his father's position running the farm.

Alexander's family were secularized Jews who drifted further away from Judaism once they came to Jägerslust. His two sisters, Lilly and Susanne, converted in 1912 in order to be able to pursue their careers as teachers, and his father had told him that he could be baptized "like his sisters were."

(to be continued)

Alexander Wolff died June 02, 1984 (93) in Bergen County, New Jersey.

His wife, Irma Wolff (Altmann) was murdered in February 1943 (51) in Auschwitz.

Sources:
geni.com (Alexander Wolff)
geni.com (Lilly Wolff)
Bernd Philipsen

Käte Wolff
Käte Wolff

Yitzhak Shakedi (יצחק שקדי)
Yitzhak Shakedi

Photo collection of Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann.

Yitzhak Shakedi was born 10 Oct 1912 to the Mandelbaum family in the town of Smiatycz, Poland. Yitzhak studied Talmud Torah but also belonged to Zionist youth organizations. He immigrated to Israel in October 1930 and joined Kibbutz Givat Hashlosha where he worked in the orchard. He soon went to study at the University of Jerusalem.

The Youth and Pioneer Department of the Agency then contacted Shakedi to go on a rescue mission in Nazi Germany. In 1935 he went to Germany where he coordinated and instructed in the training farms established by Hechalutz. Two groups of his trainees were allowed to immigrate to Israel, one to Ein Harod, while the second group arrived in Givat Hashlosha before the outbreak of World War II, in 1939.

Because this photo was in Richard Hausmann's album, we can assume that Yitzhak Shakedi came to Jägerslust to provide instruction and guidance in topics out of the realm of Alex Wolff's expertise, such as Hebrew, Jewish traditions, and kibbutz life.

Yitzhak Shakedi died in December 1982 in Kibbutz Einat.

Source: Kibbutz Einat memorial

List of Hachshara trainees in Jägerslust

Between the Fall of 1934 and the abrupt end on November 10, 1938, approximately 100 young people participated in the Hachshara (training) program in the Jägerslust estate of the Wolff family in Flensburg.

So far, 75 are known by name. The list below is thus incomplete and mostly covers the 1936-1937 period. For 1938, the date is often simply inferred based on the Kiel prison incarceration log following the November 9-10 Pogrom.

Unless otherwise noted, all the information below is from Bernd Philipsen's research.

Of these 75 people,

Demographics:

  • 47 were men (63%)
  • 28 women (37%)
  • 24 belonged to one of 12 couples (32%)
  • 4 belonged to 2 pairs of siblings

Fate:

  • 47 are known to have survived the war (63%)
  • 4 died in the Holocaust (5%)
  • 1 died in Germany of pneumonia in 1938 (1%)
  • 23: fate unknown (30%)

Out of the 47 who are known to have survived,

Destinations:

  • 31 made Aliyah (66%)
  • 5 went to the USA (10%)
  • 7 remained in Denmark or Sweden (15%)
  • 2 remained in the Netherlands (4%)
  • 1 returned to Germany (2%)
  • 1: unknown destination (2%)

Of the 31 who made Aliyah,

  • 7 arrived in 1936 with an immigration visa (23%)
  • 9 arrived in 1937 with an immigration visa (32%)
  • 3 arrived in 1938 with an immigration visa (10%)
  • 4* arrived in 1939, "illegally", via the Dora (Aliyah Bet) (13%) (* includes Heinich Rosenberg which is assumed)
  • 2 arrived in 1944, via Spain or Portugal, unknown immigration type (6%)
  • 2 arrived in 1945, unknown immigration type (6%)
  • 2 arrived in 1949 in Israel after the War of Independence (6%)
  • 2: date of arrival unknown (6%)


Year Name City Notes
1936-1937
Felix Bender
Felix Bender

Photo: Richard Hausmann, courtesy of Eric S. Hausmann. 22.3.1936.

No further information available.

? to Nov 1938
Albert Berger
Albert Berger
Bonn

Albert Berger was born 03 May 1919 in Siegburg, near Bonn, the son of Salomon Berger, a cattle dealer, and Elisabeth Berger. His father, Salomon Berger, died in 1930 when Albert was eleven years old.

Albert Berger came to Kibbutz Jägerslust as an "agricultural intern" on June 7, 1938, as recorded in the Flensburg city registration files. His brother Hermann Leopold (Chaim) Berger had preceded him there, having successfully completed his hachschara in Jägerslust, and having already emigrated to Palestine.

Albert Berger's stay in kibbutz Jägerslust was brief. It ended abruptly on the night of November 10th in the early hours of the morning around three o'clock when the manor and the kibbutz were attacked by Nazi thugs under the direction of the Flensburg Police President and SS-Standartenführer Hinrich Möller. Albert Berger was taken to the Kiel police prison along with ten interns from Flensburg. He was then sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, where he remained until the end of December 1938.

After his release, he came to the Netherlands in January 1939 and joined a hachshara group in Deventer, in the province of Overijssel. His hopes of completing his training and leaving the country were dashed by the occupation of the Netherlands by the German troops in May 1940.

On October 3, 1942, Albert Berger was sent to Westerbork, the central transit camp for deportations to Eastern Europe. A year later, on September 14, 1943, a transport with 902 women, men and children, including Albert Berger, left Westerbork for Auschwitz. The train took two days to reach the German death factory in Poland. Berger was used for forced labor in the Monowitz concentration camp (Auschwitz III).

Albert Berger died in Auschwitz-Monowitz on February 19, 1944 at the age of 24.

His brothers Adolf (Adi) and Hermann (Chaim), having managed to leave for Israel, survived the war.

According to the testimony of Shlomo Samson, Albert Berger's photograph was taken in the Westerbork camp by Werner Rudolf Breslauer, apparently with the intention of its future use by members of the Zionist pioneering underground (in the camp and outside it) for producing forged identity documents for the purpose of escaping from the camp. (Source: www.infocenters.co.il)

Source and photo: oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
See also: geni.com, with additional information from Bernd Philipsen.

1936-1937
Hermann (Chaim) Berger
הרמן לאופולד ברגר
חיים ברגר
Hermann (Chaim) Berger
Duisburg

Chaim Hermann Leopold Berger was born January 05, 1918 in Niederzissen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The son of Salomon Berger, a cattle dealer, and Elisabeth Berger, he had two brothers, Adolf Adi Berger and Albert Berger, another Flensburg trainee. His father, Salomon Berger, died in 1930 when Hermann was twelve years old.

Hermann Berger arrived in Palestine on February 28, 1938. At the time of his 1940 application for naturalization, he lived in Kvutzat Massad near Ein Harod as an agricultural labourer, although the address is crossed replaced with "Atlit". It's not clear if this means he had relocated to Atlit or was incarcerated in the Atlit detainee camp. He was finally granted citizenship in September 1942.

He later married Anne Oppenheimer and the couple had two children.

Chaim Berger died February 17, 1962 (44) in Haifa, Israel.

Sources:
geni.com
www.archives.gov.il

May 1937 - Feb 1938
Werner Uri Brock
ורנר אורי ברוק
Werner Uri Brock
Düsseldorf

Werner Uri Brock was born on May 11, 1919 in Düsseldorf.

According to the registration card of the city of Flensburg, Werner Brock was in Flensburg from May 4, 1937, to February 2, 1938. (He later declared in an affidavit that he joined Jägerslust "at the end of 1936".) He received an immigration visa and arrived in Palestine on February 28, 1938.

According to his file in the Israel State Archives, he applied for citizenship in 1940. At that time, he lived in Jerusalem and was unmarried. His profession was listed as "policeman" on one document, and as "temporary additional watcher" ("shomer": שומר זמני).

He married Gisela (Golda) Lustig, the younger sister of Josef Lustig, another trainee in Jägerslust whom he had met in Palestine, and the couple had two children.

In 1975, he filled out the following affidavit regarding his stay in Jägerslust:

"At the end of 1936 I came to Gut Jaergeslust near Flensburg, where I was an agricultural worker. At about the same time, Samuel Federmann came to Gut Jaergeslust, where we mostly worked together for over a year."

"A total of 30-40 agricultural workers were employed in Jaegerslust, all of whom worked under the same conditions as we did. We worked 9 hours a day and received a small fee of around RM.15. - weekly with free board and lodging, as well as work clothes."

"I know that the landlord paid contributions to the disability insurance and that there were insurance cards for all workers."

Source: Israel State Archives, via Bernd Philipsen

1936-1937
Gerhard Chaim
Gerhard Chaim
Wroclaw (Breslau)

No further information available.

Apr 1938 to ?
Helena Sara Croner
m: Helene Roenhorst
Helena Sara Croner
Hamburg

Helena (Helene, Lenie) Sara Croner was born January 3rd, 1919 in Hamburg, Germany, the daughter of Walter Croner and Jenny Meijer. Her father died in 1934 when she was fifteen years old.

She joined the Hachashara training program in Jägerslust in April 1938. After fleeing Germany, she came to the Netherlands in March 1939, where she joined the Deventer Association. She first stayed in Weerselo from April 1939 to the end of December 1939. She then spent a few days in Deventer with Ru Cohen, the founder of the Deventer Association. She later left for Brummen.

In 1942 she married Michiel Asser Benjamin Jacob and the couple moved to Zelhem, where they took over the shop in smoking articles from his parents.

Helene survived the war. She later married Johannes Hendrikus (Han) Roenhorst.

Helene Roenhorst (Croner) died in April 1999 (80) in Zelhem, Netherlands.

Her mother, Jenny Croner, her three sisters, Ruth, Anna, Meta, and her brother, Leopold, were murdered in 1942. Her first husband, Michiel Asser Benjamin Jacob, died in the Gross-Rosen concentration camp in 1945.

Her brother Herman and half-brother Herbert went to the USA and survived the war.

Sources:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
www.geni.com
www.oudzelhem.nl (photo)

1936-1937
Erika Dallmann
m: Erika Beer
Rügenwalde

Erika Dallmann was born October 16, 1907 in Rügenwalde.

After her stay in Jägerslust, she went to Denmark for further training in the framework of the exchange program (1936/1937).

Erika Dallmann married Heinz Beer, and the couple had two children. Erika Beer (Dallmann) died June 9, 1982 in Fredensborg, Denmark.

Source: geni.com

Anna Dreifuss
Anna Dreifuss

Anne Rose (Rosa) Dreyfus (Dreifuss, Dreyfus) was born on October 27th, 1918 in Bochum (or Sulzbach, Saarland), Germany, the daughter of Emil Dreyfus and Toni Löwenbach. Her father was a lawyer born in Alsace-Lorraine (Elsass Lothringen). She had two siblings, Walter Otto Dreifuss and Lilli Marie Dreifuss, another Jägerslust trainee.

After her hachshara in Flensburg, she fled to the Netherlands. She was incarerated in the Westerbork camp then deported to Auschwitz, where she was murdered on September 7, 1942.

Anne Rose's parents, Emil and Toni Dreifuss were murdered in the Shoah, so was her sister Lili Marie.

Sources:
Yad Vaschem
geni.com
Bernd Philipsen

1937-1938
Lili Marie Dreifuss
m: Lilli Marie de Leeuw

Lilli Marie Dreifuss (Dreijfus) was born March 28, 1920, in Bochum (or Sulzbach/Saar), Germany, the daughter of Emil Dreyfus and Toni Löwenbach. Her father was a lawyer born in Alsace-Lorraine (Elsass Lothringen). She had two siblings, Walter Otto Dreifuss and Anna Rose Dreifuss, another Jägerslust trainee.

According to a testimony in Yad Vashem, she attended the Flensburg Hachshara between 1937 and 1938.

After leaving Jägerslust, Lili Dreifus went to the Netherlands and belonged to the Deventer Association.

She married Salomon Bernard de Leeuw.

Lilli Marie de Leeuw (Dreifuss) was murdered on April 30th, 1943, in Sobibór, Poland. She was 23 years old.

Lilli Marie's parents, Emil and Toni Dreifuss were murdered in the Shoah, so was her sister Anne Rose.

Sources:
geni.com
www.joodsmonument.nl
yvng.yadvashem.org

1936-1937
Ferdinand (Nante) Ehrenberg
Ferdinand (Nante) Ehrenberg
Karlsruhe

Ferdinand Ehrenberg was born 8 December 1917 in Karlsruhe.

After Jägerslust, Ferdinand Ehrenberg went to Denmark for further training in the framework of the exchange program. He was with Bernhard Lieser at least until spring of 1941 in the Slangerup Agricultural School, as evidence by this testimony ("Unge jøders flugt 1939-1945"):

"One afternoon two young men came cycling to Gørløse School and asked for me. There were two Hechalutz chaverim, Ferdinand Ehrenberg and Bernhard Lieser. They were students at Slangerup Agricultural School for the winter. Both came from Germany. I visited the two at the school in Slangerup and borrowed a few books from them. One Sunday in the spring of 1941, Ferdinand and Bernhard invited me to a pegishah in the Hechalutz center in Frederikssund."1

Ferdinand Ehrenberg married Else Bodil Anni Jönsson from Kopenhagen. The couple's last place of residence in Denmark was Roskilde. Aware of the upcoming planned deportation of Jews from Denmark, Ferdinand and his wife Else, who was not Jewish, fled to Sweden aboard a fishing boat in the night of October 8, 1943, arriving the next afternoon in Klagshamn near Malmö.

According to the immigration form filled out upon his arrival in Malmö, Ferdinand Ehrenberg declared being penniless ("money brought: none").

Ferdinand Ehrenberg died on January 10, 1994 in Gothenburg, Sweden.

Sources:
1: "Unge jøders flugt 1939-1945" (by Anders Enevig)
safe-haven.dk

Mar 1937 to Oct 1938
Sam (Samo, Samuel) Federmann
Shmuel Federman
שמואל ("סם") פדרמן
Samuel Federmann
Chemnitz

Sam (Samo, Samuel) Federmann was born in 1917 in Chemnitz, the son of David Aharon Federmann and Cipora Kupfermunz.

Federmann was a member of the Zionist Youth Organization from 1927 to 1938. From 1936 to 1938, he followed training in preparation for emigration to Palestine, first in Hamburg, then at the Jägerslust estate in Flensburg, from February/March 1937 until the end of October 1938. He was away in Berlin for medical treatment and was not present during the attack on Jägerslust during the November pogrom.

His escape from Germany took him to Belgium (1938), France (1939, volunteer in the French Army) and Spain (1940), where he was interned for a long time in a camp. He finally reached Tel Aviv in January 1944.

A hotelier and entrepreneur, he founded the Dan Hotels Corporation in 1947 along with his brother Yekutiel. He changed his name to Shmuel Federman - שמואל ("סם") פדרמן. Sam Federmann died in 2006 in Tel Aviv.

Sources:
Bernd Philipsen
geni.com

1936-1937
Herbert Feinstein

A chalutz named Herbert Feinstein is mentioned in "Hachshara and Youth Aliyah in Sweden 1933-1948", By Emil Glück, Judith Diamond, Yaël Glick, p46. He led a Youth Aliyah group from Helsingegården, Sweden to Palestine on April 20th, 1941. The group settled in Atlit.

The Israeli Government Archive also has a file and photo for a Herbert Feinstein, born in Cologne on 24.3.1914, with previous country of residence Sweden, who arrived in Palestine on 7.5.1941, and whose occupation is listed as "agricultural labourer". He resided in Kibbutz Alonim and was married to Ursula Marcuse.

If this is the same person as the Jägerslust trainee, it means that Herbert Feinstein managed to flee Germany and find refuge in Sweden, then made it to Palestine in the spring of 1941. There is not enough evidence at this point however to confirm this is the same Herbert Feinstein.

No further information available.

1936
Magdalena Felicitas Ferenszi
m: Magdalena Felicitas Oppenheimer
מגדלנה פליסיטאס אופנהימר
Magdalena Felicitas Ferenszi (married name: Oppenheimer)
Hungary

Magdalena Felicitas Ferenszi was born in Öcsöd, Hungary, 16 January 1916.

*Note: Assuming was a trainee in Jägerslust because her passport was issued in Flensburg on 6 July 1936 and she emigrated to Palestine two weeks later (22 July 1936) with her husband Hans Oppenheimer, another Jägerslust trainee. The lived in Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov.

Source: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1939)

1937-1938
Eva Fink
m: Chava Lehmann
חוה להמן
Posen

Eva Fink was born 11 February, 1921 in Posen, Germany.

She joined the Zionist youth organization Habonim in Breslau. She then started her hachshara in Jägerslust from 1937 to 1938. She continued her training in the Ellguth hachshara the same year. Her training ended abruptly on November 9, 1938, during the so-called Novemberpogrom (Krisallnacht), when the Elgut house was stormed, the chaverim beaten and taken away. At the same time, her father was sent to a concentration camp and his business destroyed.

Eva Fink fled Germany in March 1939, going from Breslau to The Hague with the help of the Hechalutz organization. From May 1940 to July 1942, she continued her agricultural training in De Steeg, near Arnhem, with the Deventer Association and with local farmers. In May 1942 she joined the Jewish mental institution "Apeldoornsche Bosch" as a gardener. She was able to leave the facility on the eve of its evacuation, following which all patients and most employees were sent to their death in Auschwitz. From there she went into hiding, staying with five Christian families until the liberation of Holland on April 5th, 1945.

Eva Fink made Aliyah in August 1945. She was married in 1947 and had two children: Naomi, in 1949 and Michael, in 1952. She changed her name to Chava Lehmann (חוה להמן).

Sources:
infocenters.co.il (Eva Fink's testimony, via Bernd Philipsen)
www.museumalkmaar40-45.nl

?-1936-?
H. Finkelstein
H. Finkelstein

A chalutz named H. Finkelstein appears on a photo next to Erna Weinert on the roof on of the "kibbutz" on March 22, 1936.

No further information available.

? until Nov 1938
Ernst Fischer
Frankenthal

Ernst Fischer was born 17 August 1918.

Following the attack by local Nazis on Jägerslust in the night on November 10th ("Kristallnacht"), he ws taken to the Kiel prison as evidenced by the presence of his name in the "custody book". He was then incarcerated in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, from where he was released on December 28, 1938.

Ernst Fischer later fled to the Netherlands (Almen: Het Laren). He then boarded the Dora, an illegal immigration ship in July 1939 and arrived in Palestine in August 1939, two weeks before the beginning of the war.

Source: www.ushmm.org

1936-1937
Willi Friedmann
Wroclaw (Breslau)

Willi Friedmann arrived in Jägerslust on March 1st, 1936, from Breslau as an agricultural trainee. A year later, on March 3, 1937, he married Jenny Jaschkowitz, another Jägerslust trainee from Breslau. The couple then left Jägerslust in May 1937.

No further information available.

Source: "Flensburger Aufgebote", Nebenkartei, Newspaper note from 16.1.1937, via Bernd Philipsen.

1936-1937
Ruth Hamburger
Ruth Hamburger

There is one Ruth Hamburger, born in Dolitz, Germany, in 1910, who immigrated to Palestine in March 1937 and was married to one Heinrich Freund in the www.archives.gov.il. Although the dates of birth and immigration suggest a possible match, and there is a small ressemblance between the respective photos, it is impossible to confirm it is the same individual.

No further information available.

1936-1937
Richard Hausmann
Richard Hausmann
Düren

Richard Hausmann was born August 12, 1914, in Düren, Rhineland.

He was employed in the department store of Leonhard Tietz in Düren, until it was "Aryanized". He then began studying to become a textile engineer at the weaving school in Aachen.

Richard Hausmann came to the Jägerslust hachshara to follow agricultural training on October 20, 1936. There he met his future wife Erna (Ernestine) Weinert. They left Flensburg on July 19, 1937 and temporarily moved with farmers in Meiningen, Thuringia.

Richard and Erna then fled Germany in February 1938 (or "shortly before the outbreak of war in 1939"). They first went to Sweden, but since their residence permits could not be renewed, they left for Denmark after 18 months, and together with other Jews found work on farms in South Zealand. For a short time, Richard worked on Harald Petersen's farm, while Erna was hired on a neighboring farm. They then both found work in Haslev, where their son Herman was born. In 1941, Harald and his wife Agnete moved to a farm in Ostbakkegaard, 15 km west of Copenhagen, and in 1942 the Hausmann couple were hired on Harald Petersen's farm, with Richard working as a herdsman.

On Sunday, September 30, 1943, Harald Petersen learned of the Germans' plan to deport all Jews of Denmark to concentration camps, so the next morning he drove the Hausman family to Copenhagen, where they went underground and remained in hiding with friends in Bronshoj, in the suburbs of the city. After three days without finding a fisherman to take them across the waters, Harald Petersen finally found a fisherman to take them and paid 3,000 crowns for their escape with his own money. During the night between 3 and 4 October 1943, the Hausmann family, together with a group of Jews, were transported to Sweden by fishing boat. (On March 28, 1990, Yad Vashem recognized Harald Petersen as Righteous Among the Nations for having risked his life to arrange the Hausmanns' escape.)

Richard and Erna emigrated to the USA in August 1950, and lived in Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Richard Hausmann was an engineer in the fabric industry. The couple had three children: Hermann, (Copenhagen, 1942), Ruth, (Sweden, 1944), and Stephen David (USA, 1950). Richard Hausmann died in December 2007 at the age of 93 in Longmeadow, USA.

Sources:
Yad Vashem
safe-haven.dk
en.gariwo.net

1936-1937
Dora Herbst
Köln

No further information available.

1936-1937
Herbert Hirsch
William Mar Anderson
Münsterberg

Herbert (Zvi) Hirsch was born December 3, 1914 in Münsterberg, Germany (today Ziębice, Poland), the son of Max and Margaret Hirsch.

Following his stay in Jägerslust, he came to Copenhagen. He then immigrated to the USA in August 1937 and first lived in Pittsburgh, PA. His 1940 draft registration card indicates that, by then, his father Max lived in Detroit, Michigan, suggesting that the family either had relatives in the USA, or sufficient means to secure American visas for the entire family.

Herbert Hirsch later changed his name to William Mar Anderson. He died in October 1969.

Sources:
Bernd Philipsen
geni.com

1936-1937
Lotte Honig

No further information available.

Aug 1936 to Mar 1937
Bernhard ("Männe") Horn
ברנהרד הורן
Bernhard Horn

1941

Köln

Bernhard ("Männe") Horn was born 16 June, 1909 in Cologne. He married Margot Horn (born Lange), another trainee in Jägerslust.

Bernard and Margot arrived in Palestine 19 April 1937. They first lived in Haifa. His profession was listed as "labourer". The couple had (at least) one child, a daughter, Noah, born January 1938 in Hadera, Israel.

Source, including 1941 photo: www.archives.gov.il

Aug 1936 to Mar 1937
Margot Horn
Margot Horn (Lange)

1941

Berlin

Margot Horn (maiden name Lange) was born 11 January 1911 in Berlin. She was married to Bernhard ("Männe") Horn.

Margot and Bernhard came to Palestine 19 April 1937. The couple had one daughter, Noah, born January 1938 in Hadera, Israel.

Source, including 1941 photo: www.archives.gov.il

1936-1937
Ernst Isaksohn (Isackson)
Ernst Isaksohn

No further information available.

1936-1937
Jenny Jaschkowitz (Yashkovice)
m: Jenny Friedmann
Jenny Jaschkowitz (Yashkovice) (Jenny Friedmann)
Wroclaw (Breslau)

Jenny Jaschkowitz (Yashkovice) was born 23 March 1914 in Poznań.

She came to the Jägerslust Hachshara from Breslau on March 23, 1936. She married on March 3, 1937 Willy Friedmann, another Jägerslust trainee from Breslau. Together, they left Jägerslust in May 1937.

No further information available.

Source: "Flensburger Aufgebote", Nebenkartei, from 16.1.1937, via Bernd Philipsen.

1936-1937
Carry Jordan
קרי (קרולינה) (יורדן) שמידט

The following is not confirmed, but likely correct considering the rarity of the name Carry Jordan. The only discrepancy is that she is recorded as having been in Jägerslust in 36-37 but is said to have made Aliyah in 1936.

Possibly: Carry Carolina Schmidt (Jordan) (קרי (קרולינה) (יורדן) שמידט), born April 19, 1912 in Koblentz, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, daughter of Leon Jordan and Selma Jordan. Her father was a veteran officer in the German army.

In her youth she studied academic painting. She immigrated to Israel in 1936, married Chaim Schmidt and had three daughters.

For 20 years, she worked as a set designer and costume designer in drama classes and ballet school performances in Nahariya. From the 1960s she continued her art studies with an emphasis on watercolor painting. She had solo exhibitions in Israel and the United States and participated in group exhibitions in Israel and Germany.

Carry (Kerry) Schmidt (Jordan) died in 2009 (96), in Nahariya, Israel.

Her brother Fritz Jordan died fighting in defense of Israel in 1948.

Her father, Leon Jordan, died in the Theresienstadt Ghetto in December 1942. Her mother, Selma Jordan was deported to Auschwitz in 1943 where she disappeared.

Sources:
geni.com
www.talgallery.co.il

Summer 1936 to Winter 1937
Lotte Kaiser
m: Lotte Flegenheimer
m: Lotte Peleg
Lotte Kaiser
Leipzig

Lotte Kaiser was born 7 October 1907 in Leipzig, Germany.

After attending Jägerslust, she received a visa for Palestine and immigrated in June 1st, 1937.

She married Wilhelm Benjamin Flegenheimer sometimes in 1942. Her husband was born in 1910 in Odenheim, and lived in Hannover prior to his emigration to Palestine in March 1934. The couple lived in Moledet, Israel and had (at least) one child, David, born in 1945.

The family adopted the surname Peleg.

Lotte Peleg (Flegenheimer, Kaiser) died in Moledet in 2003.

Sources:
www.kaminsky.nl
www.archives.gov.il

Summer 1938 to Nov 1938
Toni Katz
m: Toni Abraham
Toni Katz (Abraham)
Sokal, Poland

Toni Katz was born Sept 30 1919 in Sokal, Poland (now Ukraine), the daughter of Leo Katz and Frida Tabak. She came to Gera, Germany, with her family when she was three years old. There her parents owned a store that sold linen and other fabric goods.

Like so many Jewish adolescents of her generation, Toni had to abandon school at the age of 14 due to the rising antisemitism. She started to work as an apprentice in a department store, but was dismissed when the enterprise was "Aryanized" at the end of 1935. She then joined Bar Kochba, a Zionist youth sports association.

She came to Jägerslust in the Summer of 1938, where she remained until its abrupt end on November 10, 1938, during the so-called Novemberpogrom (Kristallnacht). She wrote:

"The Gestapo arrived one morning at 4 am. We were all arrested, and taken to preventative arrest in Flensburg. The women were let go during the day, on condition that we would leave the camp immediately. The men were taken to a concentration camp (KZ). While we were arrested, our camp was entirely destroyed by the Gestapo, so were our personal belongings."

After her release from custody, she was able to go back to her home to Gera, only to find that her parents had been deported to Poland during the October 28th-29th roundup of Polish Jews. By then a "stateless" Jew, she spent the following months hiding with friends. She eventually crossed the Belgian border and boarded the Dora, an illegal immigration ship with 500 Jewish refugees. She arrived in Eretz Israel two weeks before the start of WW2.

She died in Paris, France, in 2001.

Her parents disappeared in the Shoah, most probably in the death camp Belzec in 1943.

Her brother Yitzhack came to Palestine in 1937 with Youth Aliyah.

Paul Katzenberg
Paul Katzenberg

Photo published in Dagens Nyheter, 1969

Hamborn

Paul Katzenberg was born 18 June 1909 in Hamborn, Germany. He completed high school and received vocational training as a wholesale merchant.

After hachshara in Jägerslust, he went to Denmark for further training in the framework of the exchange program.

Paul Katzenberg was married to Rosel (Rose, Rozy) Adler, from Berlin. The couple had a young daughter Ruth Hanna, born in August 1943 in Denmark.

On October 13, ahead of the planned mass roundup of Jews in Denmark, Paul Katzenberg, his wife and their two-month-old baby fled Denmark and reached Sweden aboard a small fishing boat.

The story of the family escape is describe in "Passage to Palestine - Young Jews in Denmark, 1932-1945" by Jørgen Hæstrup, p198-202.

"Our postman called early in the morning after the night of 1-2 October and was surprised to find me, my wife and our little daughter, still in our little house, which we rented near my place of work at the research farm. I rushed to the farm and asked for help [but the head of the farm wouldn't help].
Cast down, I left the farm, but on the way back to our little house I was accompanied by a number of our neighbors, who must have heard of the 'the action'. Grocer, baker, tobacconist, porter - all came with me and tried to comfort and all wanted to help us."

[The family then went to Odense where ladies from the social welfare office had previously offered to help if the need ever arose.]
"The directress [of the social welfare office] came with gifts - and more than 1000 kronen, which her family and their friends and acquaintances had collected, which would allow us to pay, if necessary, for our crossing to Sweden."

[Later, in Odense, where a group of refugees are gathered].
"Young people walked about with milk jugs, baskets filled with sandwiches, and large postmen's bags. They went from person to person and said 'If you have cash, leave it [in the postmen's bags]. We can use and need money, whatever there is. Your Danish kronen are not worth much in Sweden'. [...] We gave everything we owned.”

"During the afternoon, the refugees were divided into three groups, each with its destination. In the third group were older people and people with small children, who had to be driven in ambulances from Bispebjerg. It was a long day's expedition in the night. From Copenhagen we went northwards, and in clear moonlight reached a little place with some fishermen's huts. Here we had to wait for many long hours. We were told that small boats would take us on board and sail us to larger fishing cutters, which could manage the crossing. Everything was arranged with various fishermen."

"After a long wait, the message came: 'Everyone get into the waiting cars, and get away as fast as possible!' The group had been betrayed. In the confusion which ensued, we three became separated from each other [...] With the only car which was left [I] went back to Bispebjerg hospital. [...] Many times we were stopped by helpers and redirected to narrow little side roads because the Nazis had stopped some cars on the main road to Copenhagen."

[After 3 days, the Katzenbergs were finally reunited.]
"Late in the evening the same day, we began the last stage in the journey to Sweden. The taxis drove forward and all who got places went with these, and the rest of the people were to drive in Falck's ambulances. There were old people, and we two relatively young with our youngest of the whole group. In the darkness of the night, protected by men armed with pistols, [the cars] sped up to one of Denmark's south sea islands (Møn). There a fishing cutter awaited us, which was boarded by 200 people. At 2 o'clock at night the cutter lef the Danish fishing harbor, and after 9 hours, at about 11am we reached Trerrelborg in Sweden".

Paul Katzenberg had died in November 1996 in Stockholm.

Sources:
safe-haven.dk (Paul Katzenberg)
safe-haven.dk (Rosel Katzenberg)
www.ancestry.com
geni.com
"Passage to Palestine - Young Jews in Denmark, 1932-1945" by Jørgen Hæstrup, Odense University Press.p198-202.
Additional sources and photo: Bernd Philipsen

1936-1937
Paul Katzenstein

No further information available.

1936-1937
Franz Kaufmann
Franz Kaufmann
Wroclaw (Breslau)

Franz Kaufmann was a young dental technician from Breslau. He managed to emigrate directly from Flensburg with the help of the coveted worker certificate to Palestine. (Handwritten note "to Palestine" on municipal notice of departure).

Source: Bernd Philipsen

1936-1937
Max Klausner
Max Klausner

There is one Max Klausner, born in Guben, Germany in 1915 who immigrated to Palestine in April 1937 in the www.archives.gov.il, but no confirmation it is the same individual. Although the dates of birth and immigration suggest a possible match, his photograph is unfortunately too blurry to confirm it is the same person. This person's occupation was fitter, unusual for people who had gone through Hachshara and were typically in agriculture.

No further information available.

1936-1937
Ernie Kopilowski

No further information available.

Lene Kronertz

Lene Kronertz fled to the Netherlands where she was hidden by courageous Dutch famers for the duration of the war. She later remained in the country.

Source: Bernd Philipsen

May 1937 to Aug 1938
Frieda Landmann
m: Frieda Ziegler
Frieda Landmann (Frieda Ziegler)
Berlin

Frieda Landmann was born April 2, 1914* in Berlin. She attended middle school.1

She was in Jägerlust as part of her Hachshara training from 25 May 1937 to 31 August, 1938.From there she went to Denmark for further training in the framework of the exchange program.

She was married to Benno Ziegler. Born January 7 1909 in Mannheim, Germany, Benno Ziegler had been on hachshara in Italy before coming to Denmark where he was a "madrich" (guide).2 Frieda and Benno lived in Melby near Kalundborg, on the west Zealand coast.

On October 9, 1943, ahead of the planned massed roundup of Jews, Frieda and Benno fled Denmark aboard a motorboat and came to Sweden. According to the immigration file she filled out upon her arrival, she was a clerk.

In the 1990s Frieda Ziegler was living in Berlin.

*Note: April 2, 1914 is based on Frieda's 1943 immigration form. Other source has her birth date as March 1913.

Sources:
1: safe-haven.dk (1943 Swedish Immigration Form)
2: "Unge jøders flugt 1939-1945" (Anders Enevig)

1936-1937
Eva Lange
m: Eva Riesenfeld
Eva Lange

1941

Wroclaw (Breslau)

Eva Lange was born 22 November 1912, in Brieg, Silesia, Germany (now Brzeg, Poland).

She arrived in Palestine with a visa on 29 March 1937. She married Gunter Riesenfeld, another Jägerslust trainee. In Israel they lived in Kvuzat Massad, near Ein Harod. They had a daughter, born in 1938.

Source and photo (1941): www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship).

1936-1937
Gertrud Leiter
m: Gertrud Plaut
Gertrud (Trudi, Trude) Leiter
Bobfingen (Oberdorf)

Gertrud (Trudi, Trude) Leiter was born 22 May 1914 in Oberdorf, Germany.

She married Fritz Plaut, another Flensburg hachshara trainee. She received her immigration visa in Flensburg on May 7, 1937, and arrived in Haifa on September 19, 1937. The couple lived in Kiryat-Haim and had one son Hanan, born in 1938 in Petah Tikva.

Source: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1947)

Bernhard Lieser
Leipzig

Bernhard Lieser was born May 25, 1918 in Leipzig. According to his 1943 Swedish refugee registration form, he attended primary school, presumably unable to continue his education due to National Socialist persecutions.

After leaving Jägerslust, he went to Denmark for further training in the framework of the exchange program. There he attended the Slangerup Agricultural School, along with another Jägerslust trainee, Ferdinand Ehrenberg, as evidence by this testimony ("Unge jøders flugt 1939-1945"):

"One afternoon two young men came cycling to Gørløse School and asked for me. There were two Hechalutz chaverim, Ferdinand Ehrenberg and Bernhard Lieser. They were students at Slangerup Agricultural School for the winter. Both came from Germany. I visited the two at the school in Slangerup and borrowed a few books from them. One Sunday in the spring of 1941, Ferdinand and Bernhard invited me to a pegishah in the Hechalutz center in Frederikssund.

In October 1943, alerted about the upcoming deportation of Jews by the occupying German forces, more than 7,000 Danish Jews were spirited away to Sweden with the help of the Danish resistance. Bernhard Lieser was among the Jews who fled to Sweden during this rescue operation. He sailed from Sletten, Denmark, aboard a powerboat in the night of October 4, 1943, and arrived in Ven in Sweden the next day.

His escape to Sweden means that Bernhard Lieser survived the war.

No further information is available.

Sources:
"Unge jøders flugt 1939-1945" (Anders Enevig)
safe-haven.dk

1936-1937
Lina Lilie
Frankfurt

Lina Lilie (Hess) was born December 20, 1907 in Offenbach, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany.

She was married to Ludwig Lilie, another Jägerslust trainee. The couple had a son, Stephan Gerhard Lilie (1943).

Lina Lilie died in August 1991 (83), in the Bronx, New York.

Source: geni.com

1936-1937
Ludwig Lilie
Ludwig Lilie
Frankfurt

Ludwig Lilie wa born November 29, 1905 in Seligenstadt, Darmstadt, Hesse, Germany, the son of Gustav Akiba Lilie and Settchen Lilie (Simon). Ludwig's father, Gustav died in June 1924, when Ludwig was 18 years old.

Ludwig Lilie was married to Lina Lilie, another Jägerslust trainee. He moved to Frankfurt am Main in January 1937, suggesting that his training had ended by then. Although there are no details regarding their path after Jägerslust, Ludwig and Lina managed to emigrate to the USA and the couple had one son, born in New York in 1943.

Ludwig Lilie died January 1998 (92) in the Bronx, New York, United States

Ludwig Lilie's mother, Settchen Lilie, was killed in Auschwitz in May 1944 (67). So was his sister Herta Lilie, who died in Auschwitz in October 1942 (22).

His siter Rosel emigrated to the USA. His brother Richard emigrated to Israel.

Source: geni.com

? until Nov 1938
Karl Lindenberg
Berlin

Karl Lindenberg's name is listed in the "custody book" of the Kiel prison following his arrest during Kristalnacht.

Assuming he was then sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp like all the other young men from Jägerslust, and was later released at the end of December 1938, after presenting a plan to leave Germany.

No further information available.

Source: Bernd Philipsen.

1935-1936?
Erwin Linz
Joseph Ilan
יוסף אילן
Erwin Linz
Rotenburg an der Fulda

Erwin Linz was born 10 November 1914 in Rotenburg an der Fulda, the son of Hermann Linz and Fanny Linz (Plaut). His father, Hermann Linz had taken over his father's grain and flour business and expanded it in 1930 with a coffee roasting plant1.

Erwin Linz attended Jägerslust around 1935. He received an entry permit to Palestine in July 1936 and arrived in Palestine 13 July 1936. There he lived in Kfar Yecheskel (1938), where he worked as an agricultural labourer, according to his 1938 citizenship application2.

In Palestine, Erwin Linz was initially involved in an irrigation project on the western edge of the Jordan Valley. In 1945 he and his wife joined the kibbutz Givat Hashlosha, and in 1953 the kibbutz Einat. The couple had (at least) one son, Uri Ilan, born ca 19413

Erwin Linz died in 1998 (age 83) in Bnei Brak, Israel.

His parents, Hermann and Fanny Linz were deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto in 1942. From there they were deported to Auschwitz and murdered in October 1944.

His sister Sophie Rosenfeld (Linz) was able to escape to England in 1939, where she became a nurse. She later emigrated to San Francisco where she married Kurt Josef Rosenfeld.

Erwin Linz changed his name in Israel to Joseph Ilan (יוסף אילן)4

Note: through his mother Fanny Plaut, Erwin Linz was second cousin with Fritz Plaut, another Flensburg hachshara trainee.5. It isn't clear whether this is a mere coincidence, or an indication that youngsters could manage to attend the same hachsharot based on family ties or preferences.

Sources:
1: stolpersteine.rotenburg.hassia-judaica.de (PDF)
2: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1938)
3: www.christenjuden.de
4: geni.com
5: Plaut Family Tree
www.hassia-judaica.de
Bernd Philipsen

1935-1936?
Lucie Loewald
m: Lucie Cohn-Biedermann
לוצי כהן-בידרמן
Lucie Loewald

1941

Wroclaw (Breslau)

Lucie Loewald was born 25 June 1912 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), the daughter of Max Loewald and Marga, Margarete Loewald (Gross).

She emigrated directly from Flensburg to Palestine with the help of the coveted worker certificate; (handwritten note "to Palestine" on municipal notice of departure). She arrived in Palestine 8 September 19361.

She married Erich (Eliahu) Cohn-Biedermann. Her husband had joined the Haganah and was killed in 19392:

"Eliahu Cohn-Biedermann, shot by three Arabs on 10 May 1939 while garding the governor's house in the German Colony in Haifa. Eliyahu and his friend, Dov Berad, were killed on the spot3."

She was a children's nurse, Beth Hatinokoth (WIZO' Baby Home), Jerusalem.

Lucie Cohn-Biedermann (Loewald) died in 20014.

Sources:
1: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1941)
2:www.izkor.gov.il
3: geni.com
4: geni.com

Fritz Löwenstein

Fritz Löwenstein stayed in Flensburg and came to Denmark under the same program as Alex Muschinsky.

Source: Lars and Peter Muschinsky

1936-1937
Joseph Lustig
יוסף לוסטיג
Joseph Lustig
Wroclaw (Breslau)

Josef Lustig was born 19 December 1907 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), the son of Gustav Tobias Lustig and Salome Sara Lustig (Rabinersohn or Rabinsohn). After graduating from Gymnasium, Josef joined his father's business, which dealt with import and export of agricultural products, especially eggs.

He was an active member of the Blau-Weiss association in Breslau and was for a time chairman of the local chapter. In 1933 he wanted to immigrate to Israel, but the leadership of the association asked him to postpone his immigration, so that the Zionist-pioneering activity among the Jewish youth in the city would not suffer.

Josef came to Jägerslust in 1936, and in June 1937, while still a resident of Flensburg, married Frederica (Frieda) Klarfeld in Breslau. Although Frieda came to visit him in Jägerslust, it doesn't appear that she ever was a trainee there.

After their marriage, Josef and Frieda went to Denmark, where they spent approximately a year in 1938 in a farm in Sjaelland area for further agricultural training. They later received the much-coveted immigration visa to Palestine and, in January 1939, Josef and Frieda arrived in Haifa aboard the SS Champollion, having sailed out of Marseille.

The couple settled in Kibbutz Yagur, where Josef's brother Martin (Mordecai) lived. Josef joined the Hagannah, and in 1946, following the Operation Agatha (aka "Black Sabbath") which uncovered one of the main weapons arsenal of the Hagannah in Yagur, was incarcerated in a British detention camp in Rafiah for almost half a year.

The Lustigs were lifelong members of Kibbutz Yagur. The couple had two children, a son and a daughter, and six grand-children. Josef passed away in 1978.

Josef's parents Gustav Tobias and Salome Sara Lustig were murdered in Auschwitz in 1942.

Josef's brother Martin and his sister Gisela both emigrated to Israel and survived the war. Gisela married Werner Uri Brock, another Jägerslust trainee.

Sources:
Communications with Rauni and Shimon Lustig (2020, 2022)
pneiyagur.co.il
gen.scatteredmind.co.uk (1930 Breslau Synagogue Directory)

Siegfried Marcks
Eli Marcks
אלי מרקס
Siegfried Marcks

1942

Wroclaw (Breslau)

Siegfried Marcks was born Aug 26, 1915 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), the son of Gustav Marcks.

He emigrated directly from Flensburg to Palestine with the help of the coveted worker certificate (handwritten note "to Palestine" on municipal notice of departure), arriving in Palestine on 14 March 1938.

At the time of his application for citizenship in Palestine in 1942, he lived in Kibutz Shamir as a labourer and was not married.

He later changed his name to Eli Marcks (אלי מרקס).

Source and Photo: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1942)

Mar 1937 to Jul 1938
Alex Muschinsky
Alex (Alexander Josef) Muschinsky

1947

Alex (Alexander Josef) Muschinsky was born August 25, 1917 in Chemnitz, the son of Mendel Muschinsky, a merchant, and Louisa Muschinski, born Schneider.

In 1935 Alex and his younger brother Gideon were expelled from school. Gideon left Chemnitz for Palestine, and Alex worked in different garages and workshops, trying to get an education.

Alex spent 16 months in Jägerslust, from March 23, 1937 to July 24, 1938. He then left for Denmark mid-October of 1938 and worked as "Madrich" (group leader) for Youth Aliyah groups and as an agricultural worker in various places in Sealand (Sjælland) and Fuen (Fyn) until October 1943.

In October 1943, Alex, along with thousands of Danish Jews, fled to Sweden. His escape was organized by the Danish resistance and a Danish police officer from Odense, Fuen.

He returned to Denmark in 1945, where he settled permanently. He met his wife Eva in 1947 and had two sons - Lars Jakob in 1948, and Peter in 1952. He was a teacher in arts and crafts, first in a school, and later in a college for social educators.

Alex Muschinsky died in October 1994.

Alex's parents Mendel and Louisa Muschinski were deported to the Polish border in October 1938. After the German invasion they had to move to the Łomża ghetto. They tried without success to get visas for Palestine and America. They were murdered in Auschwitz in January 1943.

Primary source and 1947 photo: Peter and Lars Jakob Muschinsky (2019-2020).
Additional sources:
Lokalhistorisk Nyt/ Udgivet af Lokalhistorisk Forening for Nr. Lyndelse Sogn, nr. 47., November 1999.
yvng.yadvashem.org
www.chemnitz.de (Stolpersteine)
doi.org

Jul 1938 to Nov 1938
Regina (Nadler) Woislawski
Regina (Nadler) Woislawski.

1943

Berlin

Regina Nadler was born on September 27, 1915 in Berlin. According to her 1943 Swedish immigration file, she had attended elementary school and trade school.

She attended the hachshara program in Jägerlust as a housekeeping trainee starting in July 1938, along with her fiancé Max Woislawski.

Her training ended prematurely in the night of November 10/11 1938, the so-called November Pogrom (Kristallnacht). Following that night's events, she was incarcerated in the Flensburg police prison for the night, but was then released and was able to return to Berlin.

She fled with Max Woislawski to Denmark at the end of January 1939. From there the couple were able to reach Sweden aboard a fishing boat on October 17, 1943, as part of the mass rescue operation of the Jews from Denmark. According to the refugee registrations form the couple filled out upon their arrival in Sweden, Max and Regina were married by then and had a son, Amos Aron, born in February 1942.

In 1949 Regina and Max finally came to Israel. She lived in Sha'ar Hefer near Natania.

Source: safe-haven.dk
Photo: Application for Swedish foreign passport, 1943, via Bernd Philipsen.

1935-1937
Hanna Nathan
חנה נתן
Hanna Nathan
Köln

Hanna Nathan (maiden name: Johanna Fleischhacker) was born September 30, 1912 in Hildesheim, Germany.

She was married to Herbert Nathan, another Flensburg hachshara trainee. She had a passport issued in Flensburg, 28 November 1935, indicating that she started her training sometime that year. She arrived in Palestine 12 April 1937. She changed her name to Hanna Nathan.

Source and photo: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1940)

1936-1937
Herbert Nathan
Herbert Nathan

1940

Köln

Herbert Nathan was born 2 February 1914* in Köln, the son of Julius Nathan, a commercial clerk, and Rosalie Rosendahl.

Herbert and his brother, Rudolf, attended the municipal Jewish elementary school, then completed a commercial apprenticeship after graduating from school. When the National Socialists took power in early 1933, the family's situation quickly became very difficult, as Julius Nathan and his sons, being Jews, couldn't find work. Herberd and Rudolf joined Jewish youth associations and planned their emigration1.

After Jägerslust, Herbert Nathan went to Hamburg for a few months to complete his training.

Herbert Nathan arrived in Palestine 12 April 1937. He was married to Johanna Fleischhacker, another Flensburg hachshara trainee. At the time of his Application for Palestinian Citizenship in 1940, he lived in Ramot HaShavim as and agricultural labourer. The couple had one child2.

Herbert Nathan died on July 30, 2003 in Israel at the age of 89.

Herbert's mother, Rosalie Nathan, died in July 1941 in the Jewish hospital in Ehrenfeld. His father, Julius Nathan, was deported to the Theresienstadt ghetto in the summer/autumn of 1942 and later to the Auschwitz concentration camp where he was murdered1.

His brother Rudolf was arrested during the pogrom in November 1938 and taken to the Dachau concentration camp. Released shortly thereafter, he emigrated to Denmark a little later. When German troops occupied the country, he fled to Sweden. After the end of the war he returned to Denmark and lived there until his death1.

*Note: Herbert Nathan's year of birth is given as 1912 or 1914 depending on the sources, but this seems to be a mistake and not a case of mistaken identity.

Sources:
1: www.stadt-koeln.de
2: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1940)
www.ruthsfamilyhistory.org
Bernd Philipsen

Hans Oppenheimer
הנס אופנהימר
Hans Oppenheimer

1939

Frankfurt am Main

Hans Oppenheimer was vorn Frankfort am Main, 8 October 1913.

He emigrated directly from Flensburg to Palestine with the help of the coveted worker certificate; (handwritten note "to Palestine" on municipal notice of departure).

Hans Oppenheimer married Magdalena Felicitas Ferenszi, who may have also been a trainee in Jägerslust. (Her passport was issued in Flensburg on 6 July 1936).

The couple came to Palestine on July 22nd, 1936. They lived in Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov and Hans Oppenheimer was an agricultural labourer.

Source: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1939)

Jul 1937 to Oct 1938
Ludwig Heinz Oppenheimer
Berlin

Ludwig Heinz Oppenheimer was born 24 July 1919 in Berlin, the son of Alfred Oppenheimer and Berta Oppenheimer, nee Seelig.

Ludwig arrived in the hachshara from Berlin on 23 August 1937. He left Jägerslust on 25 October 1938 for Frankfurt am Main. He died of pneumonia in the Jewish Hospital of Frankfurt on 28 December 1938 in Frankfurt am Main.

Source: Death certificate, via Bernd Philipsen.

1936-1937
Friedel Peterseil
Friedel Peterseil
Kiel

No further information available.

? until Nov 1938
Siegbert Pinkus
Siegbert Pinkus
Mrotschen (Posen)

Siegbert Pinkus was born on 10 April 1921 in Mrotschen, Poland.

His name appears in the "custody book" of the Kiel prison, where he was incarcerated following his arrest during Kristallnacht. It is assumed that he was then taken to the Sachsenhausen camp along with all the other young men from Jägerslust and was released at the end of December, 1938.

After his release, he fled Germany and came to the Netherlands. During the war he was hidden by Dutch farmers in various locations. From Bielefeld he fled to Voorst, then stayed at Hummelo. From April 1941 he lived in Assen, at Javastraat 3, with the J. van Tijn family; from there he moved to the Magnus family at Rolderstraat 54.

Siegbert survived the war. He later emigrated with his wife, Betty Pinkus-Cohen (Betje Cohen), to Israel.

Sources:
Bernd Philipsen, p. 56
joodsebegraafplaatsassen.nl

1936-1937
Fritz Plaut
פריץ פלאוט
Fritz Plaut

Fritz Zvi Plaut was born 6 May 1918 in Frielendorf, Germany, the son of Moses Plaut and Jettchen Katz-Stiefel1.

He married Gertrud Leiter, another Flensburg hachshara trainee. He received his immigration visa in Flensburg on 7 May 1937 and arrived in Haifa on Sept 19, 1937. The couple lived in in Kiryat-Haim and had a son, Hanan, born in 1938 in Petah Tikva. At the time of his 1947 citizenship application, Fritz was a building labourer2.

Assuming that Fritz Plaut changed his name to Peleg, based on information in Plaut Family Tree where his son is listed as Channon (Hanan) Peleg.

Fritz Peleg (Plaut) died 29 Apr 1985 in Ramat Gan, Israel1.

Note: Fritz Plaut was second cousin with Erwin Linz, another Flensburg hachshara trainee1. It isn't clear whether this is a mere coincidence, or an indication that youngsters could manage to attend the same hachsharot based on family ties or preferences.

Sources:
1: Plaut Family Tree
2: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1947)

1936-1937
Günther Riesenfeld
גינטר ריזנפלד
Günther Riesenfeld

1941

Wroclaw (Breslau)

Günther Riesenfeld was born 22 November 1912, in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland), the son of Jakob Riesenfeld.

He married Eva Lange, another Jägerslust trainee. He received a visa for Palestine and emigrated on 29 March 1937. The couple had (at least) one daughter, born in 1938. At the time he applied for his citizenship in 1941, he lived in Kvuzat Massad, near Ein Harod and was an agricultural labourer.

Source and photo: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1941).

? until Nov 1938
Heinz Robinsohn
Hamburg

Listed in the custody register of the Kiel prison, following his arrest during Kristallnacht.

Assuming was then sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, along with the other young men from Jägerslust, and was later released at the end of December 1938, after presenting a plan to leave Germany.

No further information available.

1934?-1936
Werner Rosenbaum
ורנר רוזנבאום
Werner Rosenbaum

1940

Thorn

Werner Rosenbaum was born 2 December 1912 in Wesel, Germany, the son of Isidor Isaak Rosenbaum and Erika Rosenbaum (Obermeyer) 1. His father was a wealthy merchant and Werner attended secondary school ("Realschule"). He later worked in a trading house 2.

Werner joined the Hechalutz in 1934 then came to Jägerslust for agricultural training (Hachsharah). There he met his future wife Hildegard Bukofzer, another Jägerslust trainee. Werner and Hildegard were married in Flensburg in 1936 2. They managed to emigrate directly from Flensburg with the help of the coveted worker certificate to Palestine; (handwritten note "to Palestine" on municipal notice of departure) 3.

Werner and Hildegard Rosenbaum entered Palestine 13 July 1936. At the time of their 1940 citizen application, the couple lived in kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov and had a daughter, Myriam, born 1937 in Tiberias. Werner's occupation was listed as farmer 4.

Werner Rosenbaum participated in battles in Tel Katzir during the War of Independence 2.

Werner Rosenbaum died in November 1979 (66), in Ashdot Ya'akov, Israel 2.

His mother, Erika Rosenbaum (Obermeyer), was murdered in the Riga ghetto in December 1941 (64). His father, Isidor Isaak Rosenbaum, was murdered in Auschwitz on September 21, 1942 (66).

His sister, Edith Bauman, survived the war in the Netherlands.

Sources:
1: geni.com
1: ?: www.ashdot-m.org.il
3: Bernd Philipsen
4: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1940)

Hildegard Rosenbaum
הילדה רוזנבאום
Hildegard Rosenbaum, born Bukofzer

1940

Essen

Hildegard Rosenbaum, nee Bukofzer, was born 5 February 1911 in Essen, Germany, the daughter of Samuel Bukofzer and Karoline Bukofzer (Levy). Her father died in 1916 as a soldier fighting for Germany in the Battle of the Somme, Picardy, France. Hildegard was five years old.

Hildegard joined the HeChaluts in 1934 and came to Jägerslust for her hachsharah. There she met Werner Rosenbaum in 1935. Both of them worked in the barn 4. They were married in 1936 in Flensburg and they managed to emigrate directly from Flensburg with the help of the coveted worker certificate to Palestine; (handwritten note "to Palestine" on municipal notice of departure)."1

Hildegard and Werner Rosenbaum arrived in Palestine 13 July 1936. At the time of their application for citizenship in 1940, the couple lived in Kibbutz Ashdot Yaakov and had one daughter, Myriam, born in 1937 in Tiberias. The couple would have three children.

Hildegard Rosenbaum died in Ashdot Ya'akov in November 2004, at the age of 93 4.

Hildegard's mother, Karoline Bukofzer, died in the Lodz Ghetto in March 1942.

Sources:
1: Bernd Philipsen
2: www.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1940)
3: geni.com
4: www.ashdot-m.org.il

? until Nov 1938
Heinrich Rosenberg
Thorn

Listed in the custody register of the Kiel prison, following his arrest during Kristallnacht. Assuming he was then sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp together with all the young men from Jägerslust, and was later released at the end of December 1938, after presenting a plan to leave Germany.

Assuming this is the same person as "Heinz" Rosenberg, born 29.6.1917 in Thorn, Heinz being a diminutive form for Heinrich. He later was in Werkdorp Wieringermeer in the Netherlands. He boarded the Dora, a ship of illegal immigrants, in Amsterdam in July 1939, and reached the coast of Palestine in August 1939.

? to 1938
Hans Rosenfeld
Hans Rosenfeld

Hans Rosenfeld attended Jägerslust in 1938, as documented on a photograph with Max Woislawski and Siegbert Pinkpus, but he must have left before the November Pogrom as his name is not listed in the Kiel prison custody register.

Hans Rosenfeld survived the war as he is mentioned in connection with the compensation procedure for the Wolff family.

? until Nov 1938
Siegfried Rosenthal
Kettig b Koblenz

Siegfried Rosenthal's name appears in the "custody book" of the Kiel prison, indicating that he attended Jägerslust until the events of Kristallnacht.

Assuming he was then sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, along with the other young men from Jägerslust, and was later released at the end of December 1938, after presenting a plan to leave Germany.

Siegfried Rosenthal later fled illegally to the Netherlands. He joined the Werkdorp Wieringen and met there with Heinrich Max Spittel, another former trainee from Jägerlust.

Siegfried Rosenthal then teamed up with Heinz Meyerstein to find an escape route together. "We lived together for a while in Dortmund with false papers as 'Dutch foreign workers', and we both managed to flee to Spain via Holland, Belgium, France and the Pyrenees, from where we arrived in Palestine in November 1944 aboard a Portuguese ship."

Sources:
www.werkdorpwieringermeer.nl

? until Nov 1938
Schnur Rotstein
Holzweißig / Saxony-Anhalt

Listed in the "custody book" of the Kiel prison, following his arrest during Kristallnacht.

Assuming he was then sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, along with the other young men from Jägerslust, and was later released at the end of December 1938, after presenting a plan to leave Germany.

No further information available.

? until Nov 1938
Heinrich Spittel
Heinrich (Heinz) Spittel
Berlin

Heinrich (Heinz) Max Spittel was born 27 February 1918 in Berlin, the son of Max Spittel* and Gertrud Nachmann. (Other sources have his father also named Heinrich and died on December 2, 1917, less than three months before his son's birth.

He joined the Zionist pioneering movement Habonim and met Charlotte (Lotte) Wald at a meeting of the organization in 1935. He then came to Jägerslust to prepare for emigration along with Lotte Wald. His training ended abruptly with the violent assault on Jägerslust in the night of November 9-10, 1938, during the so-called Novemberpogrom, or Kristallnacht.

Although details of his incarceration haven't been found, it must assumed that he was then taken to the Kiel jail like all other young men from the hachshara, then incarcerated in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. He most likely remained there until the end of December 1938, when he would have been released against a promise to leave Germany.

Heinrich's days in the Netherlands is described in detail in the very thorough research from www.werkdorpwieringermeer.nl:

Heinrich Max Spittel and Sophie (Lotte) fled to the Netherlands in mid-February 1939. There he connected with the Deventer Organization. Heinrich first found a place with the Wagenvoort family in Vierakker, while Lotte went to Steenderen. Three months later, in June of 1939, he reported to Werkdorp Wieringen, and started working there as a gardener. There he met Siegfried Rosenthal, whom he had met at Jägerlust.

Heinrich was among the 60 people who stayed after the Werkdorp was evacuated on 20 March 1941. When the final closure occurred he left at the end of July for Arnhem, where Sophie (Lotte) had also found work. Between August 1941 and April 1942 he returned to North Holland and settled in Hoorn. This is also the address where another garderner from the Werkdorp lived, Ernst Levenbach. In April 1942, Heinrich returned to Arnhem because of the 'Jew-cleansing' of North Holland and worked as a gardener for private individuals. In the fall, Sophie (Lotte) and he consulted Kurt Hannemann about the possibility of going into hiding.

Before they could implement a plan to hide, Heinrich and Lotte, were arerested then sent to the Westerbork camp during the roundup of Jews in Arnheim on 11 December 1942. They remained there for about ten months and were then transported to Auschwitz on 16 September 1943.

Heinrich was sent to Buna-Monowitz (Auschwitz III), the synthetic rubber factory of IG-Farben. In August 1944 the factory was bombed by the British and the forced labourers, including Heinrich, were transferred to the Natzweiler-Struthof camp in October 1944, where slave labourers worked in granite quarries. With the American army approaching, the prisonners were evacutated to Buchenwald on January 1st, 1945. In March 1945, with the advancing allies closing in, they were transferred to Bergen-Belsen.

Heinrich Max Spittel was among the prisonners evacuated to Bergen-Belsen, where he survived until the liberation of the camp by the British troops on April 15th. Weakened by his long incarceration, Heinrich Max Spittel died ten days after the liberation of the camp on April 25th, 1945.

Note that there is a stolperstein ("stumbling stone") in memory of Heinrich Max Spittel which incorrectly states that he died in Auschwitz in 1943.

Heinrich Max Spittel's parents, Max and Gertrud Spittel died in Auschwitz 29 January 1943.

Sources:
www.werkdorpwieringermeer.nl
www.joodsmonument.nl
www.ushmm.org
www.infocenters.co.il

1936-1937
Adi Sporn
Adi Sporn
Bochum

No further information available.

1936-1937
Joseph (Seppl) Sternschein
Bayern

No further information available.

Liselotte Studinski
Liselotte Studinski

1943

Liselotte (Lilo) Studinski (maiden name Levy) was born 4 December 1918 in Berlin.1

According to Peter Muschinsky, she stayed in Flensburg with her husband Martin Studinski. They later came to Denmark under the same program as Alex Muschinsky.2. Liselotte and Martin then fled Denmark and came to Sweden on 22 September 1943.

Liselotte Studinsky died in June 1991, aged 72, in Copenhagen, Denmark3.

Sources:
1: safe-haven.dk
2: Communication with Lars and Peter Muschinsky 3: leightonromanisfamily.com

Martin Studinski
Martin Studinski

1943

Martin Studinski was born February 8, 1914 in Culm, West Prussia, Germany (now Chełmno, Poland)1, the son of Lesser Leo Studinski (born in Czersk, West Prussia) and Ella Simon (born in Chicago)2.

Martin Studinski and his wife Liselotte (Lilo born Lewy) stayed in Flensburg. They later came to Denmark under the same program as Alex Muschinsky.3

Martin and his wife Liselotte then fled Denmark and came to Sweden on 22 September 1943. They applied for an "Alien's Passport" in Malmö a few days later.

According to Studinski's 1943 "Application for Alien's Passport", he was a butcher and a gardener. This suggests that he may have originally have trained as a butcher, possibly coming from a family in the meat business, then acquired gardening skills in hachshara. On his application, he declared he was looking for work as a gardener. He was by then "stateless", his German passport having expired in January 1942. His last place of residence in Denmark was Birkerød, a town near Copenhagen.1

Martin's mother Ella was murdered in Auschwitz on 16 January 1942.

Note: Martin Studinski's mother's las name was Bukofzer. Although most likely a coincidence, this could also possibly indicate a connection with another Jägerslust trainee, Hildegard Bukofzer.

Sources:
1: safe-haven.dk
2: leightonromanisfamily.com
3: Communication with Lars and Peter Muschinsky

1936-1937
Berta Tokajer
m: Berta Edelstein
Berta Tokajer, later: Edelstein

1940

Modrzejow, Poland

Berta Tokajer was born 10 June 1907 in Modrzejow, Poland.

She lived in Mainz before coming to Flensburg for her hachshara in Jägerslust. She registered at the Flensburg police headquarters on 26 June 1937 for a yearly extension of her residence permit for her Foreigner Passport ("Fremdenpass").

She married Hans Edelstein on 16 February 1938. She received an immigration visa and arrived in Palestine in March 1938.

Berta (Tokajer) Edelstein's German Foreigner Passport in the Israel Archives provides a detailed record of the tortuous path she had to take in order to reach Palestine. She first left her hometown Mainz and travelled to Stuttgart where she registered her marriage (15.2.1938). From there, she travelled to Berlin and went to the British Consulate to receive her visa for Palestine six days later (21.2.1938). Next, she went to Frankfurt, where she obtained transit visas for Austria and Italy from their respective consulates the following week (28.2.1938). The next day, she crossed the border in Salzburg, Austria (1.3.1938), then one day later embarked in Trieste, Italy (2.3.1938), finally reaching Haifa and the Promised Land after five days at sea (7.3.1938).

Source and photowww.archives.gov.il (Application for Palestinian Citizenship, 1940)

Nov 1937 to Nov 1938
Charlotte (Lotte) Wald
m: Charlotte Spittel
m: Nirah Schnurmann
נירה שנורמן
Lotte Nira Schnurmann (born Wald)
Bochum

Charlotte* (Lotte) Wald was born in Bochum, Germany, 17 February 1916, the daughter of Richard Wald and Isabella Wildstat.

In 1935 she joined the Zionist pioneering movement Habonim in Bochum, along with Heinz Spittel, another trainee in Jägerslust. She then received her Aliyah training within the framework of Hechalutz, in Jägerslust from November 1937 to November 1938*. (* her testimony states February 1939 which is clearly incorrect.). Following the so-called Novemberpogrom (Kristallnacht), she was incarcerated for one day in the Flensburg Jail.

After her German citizenship was revoked, Lotte Wald fled Germany, arriving in the Netherlands in February 1939. There she pursued individual aliyah training with Hechalutz. From May 1940 to June 1941, she continued her Aliyah training in Amsterdam and worked at a vegetarian restaurant. From June 1941 to December 1942, she pursued individual aliyah training in Arnheim with her husband, Heinz Spittel, and attempted to hide unsuccessfully.

On 11 December 1942, she was deported to the Westerbork camp during the roundup of Jews in Arnheim. She was then deported to Auschwitz on 16 September 1943. All women from the transport were sent to the experimentation block (experiments on 200 women conducted by Dr. Glauberg and Dr. Wirz), while all men, amongst them Heinz Spittel, were sent to Buna-Monowitz camp, where the majority died after a few weeks. In the Summer of 1944, Lotte was transfered to Birkenau on account of her refusal to participate in the experiments. She was sent to forced labor for road construction and agriculture. She was then transfered to Bergen-Belsen in November-December 1944, and finally transfered in January 1945 to the Salzwedel Concentration Camp for forced labor in an ammunitions factory.

Following the camp liberation, she returned to the Netherlands on 28 April 1945. Her husband Heinz Spittel died following the liberation of Bergen-Belsen in April 1945, at the age of 27.

Lotte made Aliya in the Automn of 1945. There she married Hans Meir Schnurmann and had two daughters.

Lotte Nira Schnurmann (Wald) died in November 2012 in Galed, Israel, aged 96.

Lotte's father, Richard Wald, died August 21, 1942 (67) in the Theresienstadt Ghetto. Her mother Isabella Wald also died in 1942.

Her two brothers had emigrated before the war.

Note: some sources use Sophie as her first name instead of Charlotte or Lotte.

Sources:
Yad Vashem (Testimony to the Itzhak Katzenelson Holocaust and Jewish Resistance Heritage Museum and Study Center, March 1957)
www.infocenters.co.il
www.werkdorpwieringermeer.nl
www.geni.com
www.myheritage.com (photo)

1936-1937
Ernestine (Erna) Weinert
m: Erna Hausmann
Erna Weinert (Hausmann)
Wroclaw (Breslau)

Erna Weinert was born 23 September 1917 in Breslau, Germany (now Wroclaw, Poland).

She arrived from Breslau on March 19, 1936 and joined the Hachshara training program in Jägerslust as an agricultural and domestic trainee. There she met her future husband, Richard Hausmann. Together, they left Jägerslust in July 1937. After a stopover with farmers in Meiningen, Thuringia, they escaped to Sweden, then Denmark, then to the USA where they emigrated in 1950.

Erna Hausmann died in October 2008 in Tobyhanna, Pennsylvania, USA.

Jul 1937 to Nov 1938
Max Woislawski
Max Woislawski.
Grajewo, Poland

Max Woislawski was born 1 February 1913 in Grajewo, Poland.

He attended the Jägerslust hachshara agricultural training from July 1937 to November 9, 1938. He was joined there by his fiancee, Regina Nadler.

He was arrested during the November 9 pogrom (Kristallnacht) and taken to the Kiel jail. He was then incarcerated in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, from where he was released mid-December 1938 after providing assurance that he would leave Germany.

At the end of January 1939, Max and his future wife Regina Nadler were able to go to Denmark. There he received further agricultural training within the framework of the exchange program. Their last place of residence in Denmark was Slagelse, on the west coast of Zealand.

Max and Regina then fled Denmark and came to Sweden aboard a fishing boat on October 17, 1943, as part of the mass rescue operation of the Jews from Denmark. According to the refugee registrations form the couple filled out upon their arrival in Sweden, Max and Regina were married and had a son, Amos Aron, born in February 1942. Max was a "worker", and his vocational training was in agriculture. He was penniless, as he declared having 10 Danish Krone - equivallent to a worker's wage for five hours of work.

Max and Regina Woislawski immigrated to Israel in 1949. They lived in Sha'ar Hefer near Natania.

Source: safe-haven.dk

1936-1937
Ben ?
Ben ?

No further information available.

1936-1937
Oscar ?

No further information available.

Extra Special Thanks for going beyond the call of duty:
Bernd Philipsen, without whom this page would not exist. Most of the content on this page is from his book "Jägerslust". In addition to sharing a copy of the original text and allowing me to use it, he kindly shared much additional content not included in his book, including the list of chalutzim who attended Jägerslust and biographical details about a number of trainees.
Special Thanks to the descendants of Jägerslust trainees who shared information:
Eric Hausmann, who generously shared a collection of 27 photographs his grandfather, Richard Hausmann, took during his stay in Jägerslust in 1936-1937.
Lars and Peter Muschinsky, who shared the story of their father Alex Muschinsky.
Rauni and Shimon Lustig, who shared the story of Shimon's father Josef Lustig, along with several photographs.
Sources and References
Bernd Philipsen "Jägerslust" : Gutshof, Kibbuz, Flüchtlingslager, Militär-Areal. Gesellschaft für Flensburger Stadtgeschichte, 2008.
Bernd Philipsen Flensburgs Kibbuz am Rand der Stadt. (05.07.2015 article) .
Additional biographical content:
oorlogsdodendinkelland.nl
joodsebegraafplaatsassen.nl
Yad Vashem
Israel State Archives
Anders Enevig "Unge jøders flugt 1939-1945" 2018.
Additional Reading
Ulrike Pilarczyk Gemeinschaft in Bildern: Jüdische Jugendbewegung und zionistische Erziehungspraxis in Deutschland und Palästina/Israel. Wallstein Verlag, Göttingen 2009.

This family history project started September 2009.
All photos and documents belong to the author and are © Daniel Abraham, except for maps and where indicated.
Please have the courtesy to ask before copying any content.

This is a work in progress. Please contact me if you have any more information to contribute.

Last Modified: Sunday, June 19, 2022